Abstract-Tree bark is an important part of tree trunk and it derives from the activities of cambium. More studies were focused on the xylem cells development of trees at the ultrastructural level and not on phloem cells. To explore the ultrastructural changes of all kinds of secondary phloem cells in the cambium annual activities of Taxodium ascendens, and to study the mechanism of its wood formation. The samples of Taxodium ascendens were collected in different growth periods. The ultrastructural changes of all kinds of cells in the secondary phloem of Taxodium ascendens and the process of wood formation were observed by transmission electron microscope. The Results show as follows:
The sieve cells began to differentiate in late March and their cell walls thickened continuously during the periods of April to June. At the end of August, part of the sieve cells entered programmed death, with nucleus pyknosis, chromatin agglomerated, nucleoli disappeared, and the nucleoplasm decreased. At the same time, the size of the nucleus became smaller, and when the sieve cells stopped functioning, the protoplasts died. The whole cell was squeezed and deformed. Phloem parenchyma cells began to differentiate in mid-April. In the early stage of cambium activity (from mid-April to early May), the resin in the parenchyma cells was distributed in the form of large droplets. At the peak of cambium activity (from the end of May to the end of June), the resin was dispersed in the cells as fog, and the resin droplets were evenly distributed along the cell wall during the dormant period. In mid-April, newly differentiated young ray parenchyma cells were observed in the phloem near the cambium. From mid-late April to early June, the young phloem ray cells developed to mature and remained in this state until the middle of November. After that, the cells went into programmed death, and the cells contained only a large number of oil droplets and empty vesicles. The development and maturation of phloem fibers occur in all periods. Phloem fibers can be watched in any period of phloem development. The proportion of mature and developing phloem fibers differs slightly in each period.
The active period of cambium cells lasted from the beginning of March to the end of November. Newly differentiated sieve cells could be observed in March, but newly differentiated phloem parenchyma cells and ray parenchyma cells were not observed until the middle of April. Therefore, the sieve cells differentiated earliest, while the phloem parenchyma cells and ray parenchyma cells were about half a month later than the sieve cells. During the period from the beginning of phloem differentiation to the end of cambium activity, the division and differentiation of secondary phloem cells can be observed continuously.
2. Production Technology and Edaphological Anticipations of a Promising Soil Amendment: Vermicompost
Abstract-Vermicompost, an enriched compost made by involving earthworms in the preparation process, is one of the most important products in sustainable agriculture today. It has the potential to promote significantly more plant growth than other composts, prevent soil degradation, remediate it, and naturally improve overall soil health and quality. It provides cultivators with numerous opportunities, not only in terms of social and economic advancement, but also for maintaining and increasing the productivity potential of agricultural land. The dynamic nutritional composition and soil-enhancing properties of vermicompost are unmatched by any other available alternative.
3. Agronomic Characteristics of Three Soybean Varieties at Different Levels of Genistein
Authors: Aman Suyadi, Totok Agung Dwi Haryanto, Ismangil, Ponendi Hidayat
Abstract-This research aimed to identify the agronomic characteristics of three soybean varieties at varied genistein concentrations. Three soybean varieties (V1 = Deja1, V2 = Dena1, V3 = Demas1) and four levels of genistein concentration (G0=0ppm, G1=60ppm, G2=120ppm, G3=180ppm) were the two components that made up the plot design in this research. A total of three times were used for the treatment combination. Genistein concentrations were used in the split plot’s design, while the variety was applied to the main plot. The observed factors include the amount of genistein in the leaves, the number of root nodules, the amount of chlorophyll, the amount of leaf area, and the pace of plant growth.
The study's findings demonstrate that the variety Demas1 produced the most chlorophyll. 32.04 mg/L, 0.269 mg/g dried leaves of leaf genistein, and 47.88 grains of root nodules. The Deja 1 variety yielded the widest leaf area, measuring 33.26 cm 2, and the fastest plant growth rate, measuring 0.853 g/m2/week. According to the study's findings, the best genistein concentration up to the age of 49 days after planting is 180 ppm, which can result in leaves with an area of 32.3 cm 2, chlorophyll content of 34.21 mg/L, a genistein concentration of 0.032 mg/g in leaves, 43.60 grains of root nodules, and a growth rate of 0.736 g/m2/week in plants. The best agronomic characteristics are produced by the Demas1 soybean variety, which has 180 ppm of genistein.
5. Assessment of soil erosion in the Autonomous District of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Authors: Kinakpefan Michel TRAORE, Nambahigué Mathieu BAKARY, Awa Timité TAMBOURA
Abstract-In a context of global changes and climatic uncertainties, this study poses the problem of the occurrence of water erosion induced by natural constraints and uncontrolled and speculative anthropisation of soils in the Autonomous District of Abidjan. The aim is to propose a decision-making tool that identifies the areas of the Autonomous District of Abidjan (ADA) most prone to soil loss and the risk of water erosion. More specifically, the aim is to evaluate, prioritise and map the levels of susceptibility to the occurrence of this hydroclimatic risk in the ADA. The mapping approach is based on the aggregation of factors such as climatic aggressiveness, soil erodibility, topography, soil cover and anti-erosion practices from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The exploitation of these data reveals that soil loss in the ADA oscillates between a minimum value of 0 t/ha/year largely observable in the south of the lagoon system to a maximum value of 107.53 t/ha/year which concerns the plateau areas in the north. The average of this series of 0.48 t/ha/year translates into an overall low level of water erosion in the ADA over nearly 95% of the ADA territory. This soil degradation, which impacts human settlements induced by the morphology of the site, is amplified by human activities. In a context of rapid urban expansion linked to a remarkable demographic growth coupled with climatic uncertainties, development policies must better integrate sustainable soil management.
6. Effect of Mineral and Organic Fertilizer on the Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the Pissa region of the Central African Republic
Authors: Kosh-Komba E., Gougodo De Mon-Zoni L. J., Omenda J.A., Zaman M., Mingabaye-Bendima B., Batawila K., Akpagana K.
Abstract-Inefficient and unbalanced use of fertilizer is some of the plausible reasons contributing to the significant cassava yield gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited research regarding the responses of cassava to organic and inorganic fertilizers used in these agrological settings. We conducted a study in the Pissa areas with the participation of members of an agropastoral group to improve the cassava yield in rural areas of the Central African Republic. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated four times and comprising 16 elementary plots of 25m² (5m by 5m). The treatments were randomly assigned from 1 to 4 (T1, T2, T3, and T4). According to the treatments, the variabilities between cassava's growth, yield, and economic productivity in pure culture were measured and quantified. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using a linear model of R statistical software version 3.1.2. We performed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on several parameters. This study shows that treatments T4 (cassava + NPK + cow manure) and T3 (cassava + NPK) resulted in plants that have better growth in heights and diameters, unlike T1 (control) and T2 (peasant practice), which have the lowest values. The PCA confirmed that the variability between the treatments is up to 52.12% on the two axes (1 and 2) and affirms that the yields obtained during the study show a highly significant difference. The treatment T4 (cassava + NPK + cow manure) gave the highest yield and generated a good profit compared to other treatments. There was no correlation between treatments in terms of growth and productivity parameters. The T4 treatment proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performed better on all the evaluations. Therefore, organo-mineral fertilization can contribute to the improvement of cassava production.
Abstract-Little millet is a small seeded cereal grain defined very familiar due to its climate resilient smart crop with encouraging for its essential elements composition and nutritional benefits such as Low calorie content with high fiber helps in weight loss, High Protein content helps for muscle growth, Rich in antioxidants and minerals which improves immunity. Little millet have abundance of calcium, iron, zinc, dietary fiber up to 38.0 %, Protein 10-11 % with polyphenol content provides them an edge over staple cereal crop. This article covers Data in a strategic manner, History and Origin, Taxonomy, Crop management with Indigenous to Improved Practices, Weeds and management, Processing techniques and Value addition process techniques. Millets are a small seeded cereal crop have been playing as a staple food in many parts of world. These are of many different types which all have unique characters, unique traits, unique health benefits, Wherever Little millet is a millet type has been used across many parts of world like, China, East Asia, India and Malaysia, where as it is native to India and called as “Indian Millet”. The Species name is based on a Specimen collected from Sumatra (Indonesia) (deWet etal.1983) . it is used to make many more value added food products, fermented foods, healthy foods, which are stores in large supermarkets throughout the country and it’s widely used as a Alternative to Rice replacement.
Abstract-According to the most recent WHO reports, more than 50% of foods contain natural carcinogens . This allays a grave worry in the agricultural sector. Despite of the fact that pesticides used to boost agricultural Development, are known to modify human chromosomes, they are still utilized rapidly and in excessive amounts only to generate income. But at the end of the day, it becomes mandatory for a novice farmer to share a meal with his family members in these times of rising inflation. Only in India, 200k farmers committed suicide in 2016 as a result of the heavy debt loads, they were forced to take on to pay for the pricey and lethal crop growth enhancers. After witnessing the detrimental consequences of chemical farming, recently a very effective agricultural practice is getting quite trendy among the farmers known as Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF), also known as Zero Budget Spiritual Farming. In Southern India, especially in Karnataka, where it was initially developed, it has achieved widespread success . It is currently expanding so rapidly and actively across India.
9. Improvement of Sugarcane Seeds Drought Stress Tolerance by Invigoration using of Trichoderma as Bio-Primer
Authors: Danie Indra Yama, Muhammad Rizal, Muhammad Ali
Abstract-Trichoderma used in this study resulted in a density of 1.4 x 10-9 with their morphology had septate mycelium, rounded or oval conidia shape and attached to each other, has a bright green color and branched conidiophores. The biopriming treatment had a significant effect on germination, germination rate, vigor index and total chlorophyll content of sugarcane that was stressed by drought. Soaking for a long time (24 hours) caused a decrease in the percentage of germination in sugarcane seeds by 12.69%, the vigor index of 1.06 and short immersion also caused a decrease in the percentage of germination by 10.61% and a decrease in the average vigor index by 21.74. The 12-hour soaking treatment was a better treatment than control to increasing germination rates under drought stress, it was 12.5% specifically and fast germination rate of 3.76 days. Sugarcane germination rates was reduced if the soaking process is carried out in brief time and vice versa. The highest vigor index value was produced by biopriming treatment for 12 hours, which was 81.74. Biopriming treatment using secondary metabolites of Trichoderma was increasing the total chlorophyll content in sugarcane germination by 0.22 g/ml compared to without soaking treatment.
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Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science