Abstract- Water is an elixir of life and was basis of human civilization. Rapid growth in population promotes consumption of freshwater due to more industrialization and urbanization. Hence, the demand of freshwater is being increased for agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors day by day. Moreover, per capita water availability is also decreasing from 5117 m3/year in to 1371 m3/year in 2025 (MWR, GOI 2019). Shortage of water lies in more than 80 countries and almost 40% population of the world facing this problem (Sabil et.al., 2013). As about 97 % of water existed on the planet earth as seawater (Brown, 2017) and it may be good alternative for fulfill the demand of freshwater after desalination. Desalination is the process of the removal of salts from the seawater using economical processes to convert them to fresh water. It is estimated that about over 75 million people worldwide obtain fresh water by desalinating seawater or brackish water (Khawajia et al., 2010). Therefore, many countries in the world are investing heavily in the seawater desalination for production of freshwater. The five world leading countries by desalination capacity are Saudi Arabia (17.4%), USA (16.2%), United Arab Emirates (14.7%), Spain (6.4%), and Kuwait (5.8%) (Khawajia et al., 2008). Among the different methods of seawater desalination (reverse osmosis and multi-stage flash distillation etc.), gas hydrate-based desalination technology is a relatively new one that has created an interest among the researchers and institutions (Sangwai et.al, 2013). Gas hydrates are crystalline solids made of the water (host) and the gas molecules (guest) such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc., which are held within water cavities that are composed of hydrogen-bonded water molecules (Babu et.al 2018). Process in gas hydrates-based desalination technology is depend upon the phase change of liquid to solid thereby removing the solids from the liquid phase. Economically gas hydrates-based desalination technology as compared to the conventional technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) and multi stage flash (MSF) distillation looks a promising alternative for desalination of seawater (Park et al., 2011). As low temperature requirement is an important factor in gas hydrate formation process, implementation of gas hydrate desalination technology in the colder region would also enhance the economy of process by saving the energy cost for chilling the sea water. In future, the hydrate process can be made more economical by using some cheap and easily available hydrate formation promoter. Hence, the research in this direction is an ongoing process and may be very useful for fulfil the future demand of freshwater.
2. Technological Advancement in Digital Farming and India’s Present Scenario: A Review
Abstract- Technological advancements in agriculture practices for improving the crop overall life cycle is essential requirement for countries like India. In order to compete day to day increasing food demand for growing population and also to strengthen the economy, advancement in agriculture practices has become immensely necessary. In India, same practice use differently because of its highly variable climatic and geographical condition. Agriculture practices in India faces many problems like, small land holding, climate change, agroclimatic variation in different states, uneven rainfall, conventional (old) practices, traditional knowledge and political and economic tantrum unavailability of storage and transport facilities, inspite of this economic losses also occur due to the lack of indispensable information to the farmer.
To overcome these obligatory problems we have to acknowledge technological advancements and digitalization in agricultural practices. Some of the furtherance like Sensing, Geoinformatics, mobile applications and data analytics which will provide us the useful information about moisture percentage, soil health, fertilizer doses requirements, disease and pest management and exact prediction of the crop nutrient demand and also helpful in making appropriate schedule and storage arrangements to decrease the post harvest losses. We can also make marketing strategies according to the data we get and can convert old farming practice into high profitable enterprise. To make this review paper possible we went through vast literature, data, websites, journals, magazines and research papers directly or indirectly related to the agriculture advancement and digital progression.
With the help of available information we tried give our reader an brief and Hi-tech understanding of Digital Technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Big Data Analytics, sensors, companies, Satellite Imagery and Remote Sensing, Machine Learning, Robotics Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) and their mobile Applications like mKisan, Meghdoot, Damini etc.
3. Effect of Bioculture Fertilizer and Biological Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield f Tomato Plants (Solanum Lycopersicum L.), Servo F1 Variety
Authors: Abdul Fatah, Abdul Rahmi, Rizky Rahmadani., Zulkarnain
Abstract- The aim of the research was to determine the effect of bioculture and biofertilizers and their interactions on the growth and yield of Servo F1 tomato varieties and to obtain appropriate concentrations of biocultural and biofertilizers for tomato plants.
The research was conducted from May to July 2022, at the UPTB Agricultural Training Center (BAPELTAN) Jl. Thoyib Hadiwijaya No.36, South Sempaja urban village, North Samarinda sub-District, Samarinda, East Kalimantan Province.
The study used a 4x4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four (4) repetitions. The first factor was the concentration of bioculture fertilizer (B), consisting of 4 levels, namely: no bioculture fertilizer application or control (b0), 10 ml L-1 water (b1), 20 ml L-1 water (b2), and 30 ml L-1 water (b3). The second factor is biofertilizers (H) consisting of 4 levels, namely: no biofertilizers application of control (h0), 5 ml L-1 water (h1), 10 ml L-1 water (h2), and 15 ml L-1 water (h3).
The data collected were plant height at 20, 40 and 60 days after planting, plant age at flowering, number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and continued with the leasr significant difference test at the 5% level.
The results showed that: (1) application of bioculture fertilizers had a very significant effect on the plant height at 20, 40 and 60 days after planting, and fruit weight per plant. The highest fruit weight per plant was produced in the treatment 30 ml L-1 water (b3) namely 156,25 g crop-1, and the lowest was produced in the treatment without bioculture fertilizers (b0), namely 128,75 g crop-1; (2) application of biofertilizers had a significant to very significant effect on the plant height at aged 40 and 60 days after planting, number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant. The highest fruit weight per plant was produced in the treatment 15 ml L-1 water (h3) namely 156,25 g crop-1, and the lowest was one was produced in the without biofertilizers (h0), namely 128,75 g crop-1; and (3) there is an interaction between the treatment of bioculture fertilizers and biofertilizers on the plant height at the age of 20, 40 and 60 days after planting.
4. Pollution Potential of Jaggery Industry: A Case Study
Abstract- Jaggery industries are one of the agrobased cottage sectors in India. Jaggery production involves extraction of juice from the sugarcane and heating it to obtain a concentrate i.e. Jggery or Gur. Sugarcane bagasse and wood are used as fuel in the heating furnace, which is the main source of pollution. The pollution potential of the Jaggery industries was assessed in the present work that is based on the actual measurements at Jaggery industry sites. Two representative Jaggery industries were identified for detailed field studies including the stack emission monitoring. While selecting the representative industries, the production capacity and provisions of emissions monitoring were considered. Measurements were carried in respect particulate matters, sulthur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. The particulate matter emissions were observed as 751.5 mg/Nm3 in one industry and 682.5 mg/Nm3 in other industry. It was also noted that the emission of gaseous pollutants namely, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide from both the industries were low.
5. Modeling and Forecasting for Agricultural Production – Food grains in India
Abstract- Food grains are cultivated in different proportions in different parts of India depending upon its intensity and cropping pattern. It is also useful to know the area, production and yield rates of food grains grown across the country over the years and to predict the future performance of these food grains by providing suitable forecasting methods. The data regarding production of food grains for the period from 1950 to 2021 is to be analyzed by applying forecasting method. Applying the worldwide accepted Box-Jenkins method would be a suitable tool for forecasting the performance of food grains in India. The study will prompt the government to take appropriate and necessary policy measures to sustain and arrest the fluctuating performance of food grains in India and take necessary steps to enhance its overall performance.
6. Standardization of Blended Squash using Banana Pseudostem Sap with Mango, Papaya and Aloe Vera
Authors: Brunda N B, Desai Chirag, Mayani Jilen, Bhusaraddi Priya
Abstract- The present investigation entitled “Standardization of blended squash using banana pseudostem sap with mango, papaya and Aloe vera” was carried with 11 treatments along with different blending combinations of banana pseudostem sap: mango: papaya: Aloe vera (T1-75:0:25:0, T2-75:0:20:5, T3-75:5:20:0, T4-75:5:15:5, T5-75:10:15:0, T6-75:10:10:5, T7-75:15:10:0, T8-75:15:5:5, T9-75:20:5:0, T10-75:20:0:5, T11-75:25:0:0,). The prepared blended squash was filled in PET bottles and stored at room temperature up to 6 months. Chemical parameters like total soluble solids (°Brix), titrable acidity (%), total sugars (%), reducing sugars (%), carbohydrates (%), proteins (%) , iron (mg/100 ml), potassium (mg/100 ml), total phenols (mg/100 ml), calorific value (Kcal/100 ml), β-carotene (mg/100 ml) and microbial parameters were recorded at initial, 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The results were statistically analysed using completely randomized design with 3 repetitions. From the experimentation it was revealed that, the TSS, titrable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars showed increasing trend and carbohydrates, proteins, iron, potassium, total phenols, calorific value, β-carotene showed decreasing trend up to 6 months storage of blended squash and no microbial growth was observed during 6 months storage period. Results revealed that, best quality blended squash with stable nutritional quality can be prepared using 75 per cent banana pseudostem sap, 10 per cent mango pulp, 10 per cent papaya pulp and 5 per cent Aloe vera juice. Thus, the developed technology can be commercially explored by the food processors for production of quality blended squash. Therefore, it will be helpful for profitable utilization of banana pseudostem and also helps in development of different value added products.
7. Risk Possibility of Plane trees in Chahār Bāgh Abbasi Street of Isfahan
Abstract- Trees are one of the most critical indicators in green space and urban forestry planning. Knowing information about street trees is of paramount importance for proper planning and management. Any defect that causes trees to be hazardous can result in dangers to humans and vehicles. For this reason, qualitative and quantitative features and the risk potential of Oriental Plane (Platanus orientalis L.) trees on both sides of Chahār Abbasi Street and part of Chahār Bāgh Paeen Street, Isfahan, were investigated using the point transect method with a random starting point. Results showed that two criteria of deviation from a vertical position (62%) and root problems (44%) have the greatest contribution to hazard creation. Sixty-three percent of surveyed trees were classified as very low-risk trees. By selecting the most suitable tree species, taking preventive measures prior to the incidence, and applying proper management techniques, we can avoid the hazards of these trees to a large extent.
8. Relationship between Lactoferrin and Beta- Lactoglobulin Genes with the Milk Quality Traits and Somatic Cell Counts in Crossbred Dairy Cattle Genotypes
Authors: Daniel. CV. Tarbal, Joseph. O. Jung’a, Rawlynce. C. Bett, Amukamua. I. Sabastian, Beatrice. W. Machira, Van. Q. Pacho
Abstract- Lactoferrin (LTF) and Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) are two significant candidate genes known to associate with milk quality traits as well somatic cell count (SCC). In this study, the intron 3 of Lactoferrin and a region between exon 4 and intron 4 of BLG were chosen for genotyping with their relationships with milk quality trait and SCC. Results of PCR-RFLP have shown several differences among genotypes of both lactoferrin and beta lactoglobulin genes. This study shows AA was significant (P<0.05) lower than AB and BB, while as BB genotype was significantly different at (P<0.05) of beta lactoglobulin gene was high than AA and AB genotypes. The genotypes AA and AB in LTF and AA and BB in BLG are suitable for selection of milk quality. However, BB in LTF and AB in BLG have shown resistant mastitis among genotypes of crossbred dairy cows. Lactoferrin genotypes in association with SCC, SCS and Milk yield were significantly differences at 5% (P<0.05). The study reveals milk yields were high among all genotypes. Ayshire cross had the highest in AA genotype, followed by AB and the least recorded in BB genotype. Guernsey had the highest milk yield in AB genotype and low in both AA and BB genotypes. There were associations between SCC and SCS Friesian had high of level of SCC and SCS in AA and BB genotypes and AB genotype was low. Guernsey cross had high level SCC and SCC in AA and AB genotypes and low in BB genotype. And, Ayshire had high level of SCC and SCS in AA and low in BB genotype. Beta-lactoglobulin genotypes recorded high SCC, SCS and milk yields across the three genotype frequencies. The study suggests that beta-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin are candidate genes that can be used for selection against mastitis infections in a dairy herds.
9. Effect of the Combination of Liquid Biofertilizers and N, P, K Fertilizer on Soil N-Total, N Uptake, N-Fixing Bacteria and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) Results in Fluventic Eutrudepts
Authors: Emma Trinurani Sofyan, Rija Sudirja, Ahmad Syahid
Abstract- Liquid biofertilizers containing one of the bacteria Azospirillum sp. which plays a role in overcoming soil fertility problems due to excessive use of inorganic fertilizer and provides nutrients to stimulate growth and optimize crop yields. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect combination of liquid biofertilizers with N, P, K fertilizer on various treatments on N-total Soil, N uptake, N fixing bacteria and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) on Fluventic Eutrudepts. This experiment was carried out using a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of one control treatment or without fertilizer application, 2 treatment of N, P, K fertilizer and 6 combination treatment of liquid biofertilizers with N, P, K fertilizer. Each treatment was repeated three times. The results showed that the application of liquid biofertilizers combined with N, P, K fertilizer had an effect on N-total soil, N uptake, and N-fixing bacteria populations as well as sweet corn yields. The combination dose of 1 liquid biofertilizers (5 L.ha-1) with ¾ N, P, K fertilizer (225 kg.ha-1 Urea, 112.5 kg.ha-1 SP-36, 75 kg.ha-1 KCl) gave the best results on N-total soil (1.33%), N uptake (3.46 mg.plant-1), N-fixing bacteria (1.33 x 108 CFU.g-1) and yield of sweet corn (Weight cob per plot 11.6 kg, cob weight 423.5 g, cob weight without cob 334.7 g, cob diameter 52.79 mm, and cob length 23.9 cm.
10. Marketing of Parica Wood (S Chizolobium Amazonicum) Production in the Plywood Industry through Empowerment of Farming Families in East Kalimantan Province
Abstract- This research aims to determine the long-term business of a Dipterocarpa.sp farming family, in marketing plantation forest production to support the plywood industry in East Kalimantan Province. The research was carried out from January 2021 to June 2021. The research location is PT. Melapi, East Kalimantan Province. This research utilized an area of 10,000 m2 planted with Parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) aged 4 to 6 years. The results showed that: (1) annual incremental growth of 43.88 m3/ha/year with production marketing of 351,03 m3/ha within 8 years within 8 years. When marketed at annual prices. When marketed at a price Rp. 300.000/m3, then the average income per year (EAA) / ha of Rp. 7.372.300 (7372,3 US$/ha/thn), while the business scale needed to meet the needs of a farmer's family is at least 45 ha; (2) Another advantage of plantation forest exploitation is that the price of wood is cheaper per m3 and the required forest area is smaller than natural forest exploitation.
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Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science