Abstract— Smallholder farmers across the world and particularly in developing countries have been facing a problem of food insecurity and slow rate of livelihoods improvement because of climate-induced droughts and lack of effective use of modern agricultural techniques. Rainfall patterns have become more unpredictable and inconsistent with the traditional farming seasons and practices. Faced with such challenges, together with the rising population growth and its pressure on natural resources as well as strategies to eradicate hunger, many governments adopted irrigation systems and wetlands development for agriculture to improve food security and welfare of farmers and community in general. This study aims to analyse whether and the extent to which the development of Rwinkwavu marshland and introduction of irrigation system for rice growing in the area have been impacting on the community’s livelihoods improvement since the development of the marshland in 2014. Among the methodological approaches and tools used, a comprehensive desk review to explore available related research works in order to trace the gaps, field visit for researcher’s own observation and collection of information on site and available data in different institutions, exploration of satellite imagery of the study area and combination of primary and secondary data to allow the comparison of land use and cover changes before and after the marshland development, questionnaire and focused group discussions were used to collect the farmers and community’s view on the role of marsland transformation in livelihoods improvement. In addition, GIS was used to analyse and process spatial data of the land use/cover change of the area while collected data on community’s view were processed in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS. The findings indicate that the Rwinkwavu marshland reclamation and transformation to modern rice growing area has highly and positively contributed to community livelihoods improvement. It was recommended further researches in other reclaimed areas countrywide in order to allow decision makers to have enough data that help to compare the efforts and investments made in the sector with the impacts on population. Further researches to compare and balance the benefits from transformation made with the benefits from on natural ecosystem services as well as the impacts on natural habitat are also recommended.
2. Worm Collection and Characterization of Vermicompost produced using different worm species and waste feeds materials at Sinana on – Station of Bale highland southeastern Ethiopia
Authors: Mulugeta Eshetu, Daniel Abegeja, Tilahun Chibsa, Negash Bedaso
Abstract—Soil fertility decline and high prices of inorganic fertilizers are among the major bottlenecks for sustainable crop production and agricultural productivity particularly for small holder farmers. Considering these issues this study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Centre, on - station to evaluate worm collected from different sites and characterizations of vermicompost nutrient content made from different feed sources. Trials house or vermiculture was constructed on 15 m x 13 m land size having six worm bins in the house in which single worm bin 9 m2 area. Inside worm bin were covered using plastic geo-membranes to make safe for earthworms while on the top and partially, the body of house coverd by corrugated iron sheet in order protect from rain, flying predators and mesh wire for aeration purpose was used. The earthworm collection conducted contains two parts. The first part was locally collected from Sinana and Dinsho Districts from moist cool, around dead leaves (straw), moist bark dead trees leaves and farm yard manure stored for a long period of time at home garden. The second part was the red worm (Eisenia fetida) taken from Ambo Agricultural Research Center. Crop residue of field pea, faba bean, wheat and barley after chopped both using grinding machine and manually mixed with farm yard manure were used both for vermicompost and conventional compost. The major chemical properties such as pH, EC, OC, TN, available P, CEC, exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) were conducted using standard laboratory procedures. Results for nutrient content characterizations indicated that 6.93 to7.83; 0.003 to 0.007 ds/m ; 12.97 to 28.82%; 1.42 to 4.68%; 6.16 to 9.76%; 25.31 to 89.89 mg/kg and 33.23 to 65.43 cmol+/kg for pH; Ec; OC; TN; C:N; Av.P and CEC; respectively were obtained. Both exchangeable bases and micronutrients also follows similar trend for major essential plant nutrients in which relatively highest value obtained from vermicompost made using Eisenia Fetida while the lowest values obtained from conventional compost. It can be concluded that high vermicompost quality in terms of nutrient containing such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, exchangeable bases and micro nutrients was produced from the mixture of field pea, faba bean, wheat and barley straw or residue using red earthworms (Eisenia foetida) than locally collected worm species and conventional compost. It should be recommended that multiplication, demonstration of Vermiculture and vermicompost produced using Eisenia fetid and integrated use with inorganic fertilizer is need in Sinana and similar agro - ecology.
3. Exploring the Effect of Fadama III Project on Food Security in Abuja, Nigeria
Authors: Njoku, Nkechi Vivian; Fadiji, Taiye Oduntan; Ajah, Julius
Abstract—The study explores the effect of Fadama III project on food security in terms of: availability, affordability, accessibility and nutritional quality in Abuja. Primary data were used. The data were collected using questionnaires administered to 360 beneficiaries in the selected communities using multi-stage sampling method. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a three and four- point likert scale and correlation model. The selected Fadama areas include: Gwagwalada, Abaji, Amac and, Bwari. The results of the socio-economic characteristics showed that the beneficiaries were mainly male with 69%, married with 82% and relatively old with a mean score of 51 years. The result showed that the beneficiaries had a large size of household with a mean score of five persons, with crop production as the major agricultural production carried out by the beneficiaries (53.1%) and followed by livestock farmers (17.5%). About 92.2% of the beneficiaries had formal education. The results of the effectiveness of Fadama III project on food security shows that the project moderately affected the beneficiaries’ food security which increased the level of food availability and increased the use of agro-input which all ranked first. The result also reveals that lack of government support (ranked 1st) and availability of resource (ranked 2nd) were the institutional factors that affected the effectiveness of the Fadama III project. However, it is recommended that feeder roads be constructed in the study areas in other to make food more accessible and affordable, more young farmers should be encouraged by agricultural extension agents to participate in agricultural development projects and monitoring and evaluation system should be put in place in other to ensure the effectiveness of the projects.
4. The Influence of Urban Population Growth on Agricultural Land Degradation “Case Study of Kinyinya Sector in Gasabo District, Kigali City”
Abstract—Kigali city is recently expanded over the peripheral areas due to combined factors like potential land in the area in attracting investments activities, proximity to the national market and accessibility for various types of infrastructures. Therefore, the need of this article to assess the influence of urban population growth on agricultural land degradation. The results of urban population growth on agricultural land leading to the conversion of agricultural land to infrastructure development which lead to the shortage of land designed for agriculture and lead to the hunger and increment in cost for basic need especially food. A multi-method data collection approach incorporating household survey, key informant interviews and personal observation has been used to assess urbanization process of the Kigali city and the changing livelihoods. Hence, the result of findings revealed that expansion of the city during the last 5 years made significant impacts on livelihood of farming community on peripheral areas: agricultural land fragmentation, land reduction, and loss of farmer’s property on the land. On the other hand, the non-farm economic sector developed in the area was not capable to absorb evicted households. In addition, rehabilitation mechanisms used by the city mainly an arrangement of cash compensation has found to be inadequate to replace their resource base, which is land. As a result, most of the families exposed to further economic, social and cultural impoverishment. Therefore, Kigali city’s expansion seems inevitable, to ensure sustainable urban development, government should make sound planning prior to displacement without treating livelihood of vulnerable groups of people living on peripheral area.
Research findings show that 90% of the respondents agreed and affected by urban expansion. Especially people whom have expropriated due to public infrastructures such as roads, schools, markets, industries, institutions and estates, like families from Murama cell, Kinyinya sector who has relocated and expropriated while 10% of respondents have not yet affected by urban expansion The affected people are mostly living in slums (Gasharu and Murama) and have low income compared to those living in urban parts of Kinyinya( Kagugu and Gacuriro).
5. Overview on Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition of Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana): A Review
Abstract—This review focuses on overview of nutritional and phytochemical composition of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Finger millet is also known as Ragi or mandua in India, which is one of the minor cereal crop largely grown in Asian and African regions of the world. It is well known for its health benefits due to the presence of macro and micro nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals) as well as phytochemicals (Tannins, steroids, polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, balsams, lignans, phytooestrogens, phytocyanins, Gallic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, quercetin and proanthocyanidins) in correct proportion. Being staple food in India, it is highly advantageous to low income group people. Studies have concluded its effectiveness against lipid per oxidation, ageing, diabetes, hyperactivity, wounds, cancer and osteoporosis. Therefore, the need of value addition of finger millet is highly needed to combat growing issues in children as well as in aged people.
6. Forest and Environmental Fires in Sustainable Palm Oil for Independent Smallholders
Abstract—Farmers' understanding of several Indonesia Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) parameters, including land legality and forest fires, is the focus of this study. ISPO certification poses a risk to households with a diverse income structure. The threat posed by oil palm plantations to natural resources and the environment will continue to be significant challenges.
To Download this research paper please fill up the details
Publisher: AD Publications
Address: Sector-3, MP Colony, Bikaner, INDIA
Frequency: 12 issue per year
Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science