Abstract— Cropping system is an effective agricultural practice which play crucial role in soil carbon stabilization, soil health and fertility as well as in sequestering atmospheric CO2 in soil for long period of time. With these considerations in mind, a research was conducted in the Prayagraj district of eastern Uttar Pradesh to evaluate how major agricultural systems affect soil carbon stock. The major cropping system includes Wheat-Wheat, Mustard- Mustard, Rice-Wheat and Rice-Mustard Soil samples were collected from eight tehsil of Prayagraj district randomly from depth 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth. The findings show that soil organic carbon store in rice-wheat cropping systems is higher than in other cropping systems.
2. Assessment of Severity of Termites Attack in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko Campus, Ondo State, Nigeria
Authors: Owoyemi J.M, Akinnuoye A.J, and Samuel A.O.
Abstract— Termites’ attack has been a major problem for wooden structures and buildings. The severity of termites’ attack on the AAUA campus area using Triplochiton scleroxylon wood as bait was examined. Identification of prevalent termite species as well as the soil’s physical properties were studied in twenty sampled locations. Defect-free wood samples of Triplochiton scleroxylon dimensioned 35 × 35 × 450mm according to ASTM D3345-17 (2017) were buried halfway in the soil and exposed to termite attacks for 12 weeks (3 months) in an established timber graveyard at the locations. A weekly visual assessment of the stakes was done in accordance with the ASTM D 3345 rating scale and a gravimetric weight loss assessment was carried out after the period of exposure. Data obtained were used to produce termites severity probability map of the campus area was prepared using ArcGIS software and following the USDA standard color codes. Six termites species identified were: Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Isoptera: Macrotermitidae; termite), Odontotermes pauperan (Isoptera: Macrotermitidae; fungus-growing termite), Microtermes species (Isoptera: Termitidae; termite), Trinervitermes species (Isoptera: Termitidae; Trinervitermes), Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae; Rambur), and Amitermes evuncifer (Isoptera: Termitidae; amitermes). The result showed that soil properties ranged from 7.19±0.02 to 19.78±0.03% for the moisture content, 28.82±0.02 to 51.72±0.02% for water holding capacity, 1.08±0.01 to 1.76±0.01 for the bulk density, while the soil organic matter values across the locations ranged from 6.08±0.02 to 21.29±0.04, however, only the water holding capacity has a moderate positive correlation with the severity of termite activities. The termite infestation probability map revealed that almost every part of the AAUA campus showed termite activities ongoing with a varying degree.
3. Occurrence of Avian Pox Outbreaks in Wild and Canary Commercial Breedings. Diagnosis through Electron Transmission Microscopy and Histopathology Techniques
Abstract— Avian pox is one of the major viral diseases that affects canaries and due to its rapid spread, can decimate the entire breeding, causing great economic damages to breeders. Canaripoxvirus species belongs to the Poxviridae family and Avipoxvirus genus. Three main forms characterize the disease, the cutaneous, diphtheric and septicemic, but coryza and tumor forms can also occur. In the period from 2006 to 2021, outbreaks of avian pox occurred in canaries from commercial breeding and Ecological Park, in canaries victims of illegal trade in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All birds had skin lesions in beaks and feets and sometimes in the eyes and tongue, in addition to anorexia, diarrhea, weight loss and death. Samples of skin lesion fragments, crusts and organs from all birds were processed by negative staining, immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry techniques. Skin lesions samples were also processed by the histopathology technique. Through the negative staining technique, a larger number of avipoxvirus particles was visualized in all samples of nodular lesions examined and in the sample of canary lung fragments from outbreak 7. Paramyxovirus particles were visualized in samples of liver, lung, heart, gizzard, intestine and proventriculus fragments of canaries 1 and 2 from outbreak 3. In the samples of lungs fragments, pleomorphic formations similar to mycoplasmas, were also visualized. In the samples of lung, heart, gizzard, liver, intestine and tongue fragments, from outbreak 5, the presence of mycoplasma particles was also observed. The presence of aggregates formed by the antigen-antibody interaction characterized the positive result for avipoxvirus obtained in the immunoelectron microscopy technique in all skin lesions samples. In the immunocytochemistry technique the antigen-antibody reaction was strongly enhanced by the dense particles of colloidal gold on avipoxviruses. In the histopathological examination many avipoxvirus inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies), strongly eosinophilic ring-shaped, marked hyperkeratosis and epithelial hyperplasia were observed in feet skin of canaries. Areas with globular degeneration and monolymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate were also visualized.
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Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science