Abstract— The study was designed to examine the socioeconomic development of the fisher folks as a base for potential aquaculture development in Anaku community, Ayamelum Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. Eighty (80) structured questionnaires were used to collect relevant information from the fisher folks. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple percentage and Chi square. Results obtained revealed that there is a significant relationship (P<0.05) between the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and fishing activities. 82.5% of the respondents were males who engaged in fishing activities while 17.5% were females engaging in fish processing and trading, both of whom were mostly within the age bracket of 24-40 years (40.00%). 86.25% of the respondents were married and family size of 5-8 persons recorded the highest value (51.25%). This study also revealed that all the respondents used natural water bodies for fishing activities, 58.75% of the respondents practiced fishing as their only source of income while 50% of the respondents used local fishing gears. Majority of the fisherfolks had no formal education (55.00%) while 45.00% had one form of education or the other. Although a higher percentage of the fisherfolks (56.25%) were engaged in fishing activities as their primary occupation than crop farming, average monthly income of the fisherfolks in Anaku community showed that a monthly income of N50,000 had the highest frequency (41.25%). Hence, the study postulates that there is high possibility for the development of aquaculture in Anaku fishing community and recommends government support for full harnessing of fishery resources from Anaku community.
2. Detection of Coronavirus-like Particles in Wild, Exotic and Captive Animals by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Abstract— Coronaviruses infect humans and a wide diversity of mammalian and bird species causing respiratory, enteric, neurologic and hepatic disorders. Due to their facility of adapting to new species and establishing sppilover events, coronaviruses pose a risk to global public health. Considering the zoonotic risk of coronaviruses, their role in wild species that host wild animals, as well as their ability to adapt to new species, seems to be the fundamental key to understanding their pathophysiology. The objective of this work was to report the presence of coronavirus-like particles in wild, exotic and captive animal species, in fecal or small intestine samples, using negative staining technique for transmission electron microscopy. Under the transmission electron microscope, particles with coronavirus-like morphology, pleomorphic, rounded or elongated with radial projections forming a corona and measuring 80-140 nm in diameter, were visualized in all examined samples. This report is the first worldwide occurrence of coronaviruses in Falco peregrinus, Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu pecari and the first occurrence in Brazil in Sus scrofa, Nosua nosua, Puma concolor and in Rhea Americana.
3. Evaluation of Suitability of Omambala River in Anaku Community for Aquaculture Production
Abstract— Background and Objectives: Water quality is the most important factor affecting fish health and performance in aquaculture production. This research was therefore carried out to evaluate the suitability of Omambala river in Anaku community for aquaculture purposes.
Materials and Methods: Physicochemical properties, heavy metals and biological parameters were assessed to determine the suitability of the river water for aquaculture production using three different sampling stations. Data obtained were compared with the permissible limit of World Health Organization. Analytical tools used were T-test and ANOVA with SPSS Version 20.
Results: The study revealed that the physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentration were in the range of temperature, 27.33±0.57oC, turbidity, 49.80±5.70cm, nitrate, 1.06.00±0.52mg/l, Ammonia, 0.53±0.03mg/l, pH, 6.77±0.06, Dissolved oxygen, 9.33±0.57mg/l, lead, 0.123±0.015ppm, cadmium, 0.133±0.003ppm, mercury, 0.861±0.101ppm, zinc, 0.518±0.03ppm and iron, 7.436±0.58ppm. This study revealed that the physicochemical parameters were within tolerable limit except nitrate while the heavy metals were above the tolerable limits except zinc. There were abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in Omambala river.
Conclusion: Omambala river in Anaku fishing community is suitable for aquaculture purposes when properly treated to reduce high concentrations of heavy metals and it is recommended that proper environmental impact assessment of industrial, domestic and anthropogenic effluents into Omambala river be carried out to establish adequate detoxification measures.
4. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Table Egg (Eggshells) Sold in Benghazi Market, Libya
Authors: Abdalla Mohammed Abdalla Mansour, Adel Mohamed Milad Ishlak, Mohamed Ahmed Hamid Toweir
Abstract— This study aimed to conduct a microbial survey of the table eggs (eggshells) sold in the markets of Benghazi city and to identify some pathogenic bacteria. Samples collected from the markets of Benghazi city, which were divided into five sectors (Bouhdima (A), Al-Laithi (B), Hay-Al-Salam region (C), Twenty Street (D), Suburbs of Benghazi (E)). The eggs were bought from several stores in each sector randomly, where twenty samples were collected (four from each sector) with three random replications each. The results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the sectors. According to this study, 80 % of pollutants are from the Enterobacteriaceae family, which includes E. coli, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., and Citrobacter sp., and 20 % are from the genera (Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella Sp.).our results showed that the mean total number of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were 4.2 X 104, 3.9 X 105, 4.4 X 105 CFU / egg respectively. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from eggshell samples at the Benghazi suburbs markets (sector E) (7.0 % from isolated samples). From farm to consumer, the study underlines the importance of encouraging eggshell bacterial contamination prevention strategies.
5. Climatic Variability and Agricultural Season: Analysis of the Evolution of Essential Agroclimatic Parameters in Central East Cote D'ivoire
Abstract— The relationships between rainfall indices and the increase in agricultural production in Côte d'Ivoire over the period 1980-2010 do not show significant results of the current climatic trends. The study of the beginnings of the agricultural season of the "old cocoa-loop" highlights the rainfall variations that have persisted since the 1970s, and exposes rainfed agriculture to climatic risks. In addition, both daily and seasonal rainfall data collected from 1961 to 2010 were analyzed to reveal the current rainfall trends. It is worth to note that the simple study of the chronological series of the effective installation of precipitations shows both a delay and sudden fluctuation of the agricultural seasons throughout the region under investigation, at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. Other variables such as "the duration and the end" of the season, allow a more "qualitative" characterization of the investigated phenomenon. They provide additional information regarding both the manifestations of the rainfall variability and the confirmation of the importance of the phenomenon. The risks to which rainfed agriculture is exposed in relation to the current rainfall conditions are: disruption of the agricultural cycle, loss of seeds, and reduction in yield.
6. Effectiveness of Some Chemical and Biological Pesticides against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky)
Abstract— The study on “Effectiveness of some chemical and biological pesticides against S. zeamais” was carried out at National Entomology Research Center, NARC, Khumaltar, and Lalitpur. This study was carried out to find the residual effect of the pesticides on S. zeamais mortality. Each pesticide was applied in 3 concentrations.: Emmamectin Benzoate @ 0.3ml/ltr, @0.1ml/ltr and @0.6ml/ltr, Neem @ 5ml/ltr, @2.5ml/ltr and @10ml/ltr, Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @ 1.5ml/ltr, @0.75ml/ltr and @3ml/ltr; and Malathion @ 2ml/ltr, @1ml/ltr and 4ml/ltr. The residue of pesticide on weevil mortality was seen the highest on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) till the 87th Day and was least on Neem even on the 1st day of observation. The mortality % was highest (100%) on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) and Malathion and was lowest (0%) on Neem. The maximum weight loss was observed on Neem @2.5ml/ltr which was 9.4% whereas, minimum wt. loss was observed on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @ 3ml/ltr which was 0.25% of the total grain weight. The maximum percent of damaged grain was observed on Neem which was 100% while the minimum percent of damaged grain was observed on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @1.5ml/ltr which was 11.21% of the total grain. No weevil progeny emerged from Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @1.5ml/ltr treated seeds whereas the maximum number of progeny emerged from Neem @2.5ml/ltr treated seeds which were 149.67. Out of the 4 pesticides tested on the adult of Sitophilus Zeamais, Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) was found to be most effective while Neem was the least effective. Since the residual of the chemical pesticides are long lasting, it is not recommend to use pesticides for consumption but can be used to store for seed purpose.
7. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Adoption of Charcoal-Powered Processing Kiln by Fish Farmers: Evidence from Nigeria
Authors: Adegoke A. Adeyelu; Sina B. Johnson; Adeyelu, A. T.; Adedokun B. C
Abstract— This study assessed the factors influencing the adoption of charcoal-powered kiln in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State. The specific objectives of the study were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Primary data were sourced from 30 fish processors through a snowball sampling technique using a well-structured questionnaire. Data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgeting techniques and logit model. Results revealed that 76.7% of the fish processors were below 60 years. Most (80.0%) of the sampled farmers were male, 83.3% were married, having a household size of 6-10 persons while more than half (56.7%) of the respondents were educated. The benefit-cost analysis showed that charcoal-powered smoking kiln was found to be profitable. The marginal effects estimated from the logit coefficients showed that years of schooling, household size, income level, shelf life and consumer’s taste and preference for the product were positively related to the adoption of charcoal-powered kiln technology. Based on the findings, the study concluded that charcoal-powered smoking kiln is reliable and profitable for fish smoking. It is, therefore, recommended that policy that will enhance and facilitate its adoption should be promoted. Extensive awareness and further training of fish processor through mass media should be carried out and sponsored by both government and non-governmental agencies across the country.
8. Impact of Insect Pollination on Fruit Set, Fruit Size and Yield of Three Sweet Cherry Cultivars
Abstract— In the present research project, we compare three different pollination types (viz., with insects, without insects, and solely with honeybees) of three widespread sweet cherry cultivars, with the aim of conducting measurements and drawing conclusions pertaining to the impact of pollinators on fruit set, yield, and fruit quality in commercial orchards. It included a total of three treatments: Isolation with anti-insect nets (IS), Isolation with cages and Honeybee Pollination (HB), and Open Pollination (OP). Recent research focuses mostly on the role that different types of pollinator have in sweet cherry pollination; however, they do not provide measurements of final yields. The applied experimental method, was fast, simple, of low labor cost, and yielded robust and valid results based upon statistical analysis that are easily comprehensible by the sweet cherry growers. From the results of the experiment, it is evident that the absence of pollinators is a restrictive factor in fruit production, not only in cross-pollinated but also in self-fertile varieties. The value of open pollination, during which cherry flowers are visited by native pollinators and honeybees is beyond doubt. Wind is not a means of transporting pollen to sweet cherry trees. Honeybees have proved to be effective managed pollinators and thus they represent an efficient approach that can ensure increased yields and large size fruits, when colonies placed in sweet cherry orchards.
9. The Effect of Irrigation Frequency and Amount on the Growth and Yield of Kale (Brassica Oleracea var. Acephala)
Abstract— A study was conducted in which Kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) was grown in a Randomized Block Design experiment at the Faculty of Agriculture at Luyengo Campus of the University of Eswatini to compare five different irrigation frequencies (treatments) on the production of kale. The five treatments were: Treatment 0 (T0) the control irrigated daily – applying 5.0 mm, treatment 1 (T1) irrigated after two days, treatment 2 (T2) irrigated after three days, treatment 3 (T3) irrigated after four days and treatment 4 (T4) irrigated after five days. Two litre (2 L) soft drink plastic bottles were used as the irrigation method. The results showed that irrigating kale every two days and applying 14 mm of water was the best option for the Luyengo area compared to applying 5 mm daily. Skipping more than two days between irrigations resulted in significantly lower yields. There were no significant differences in the other measured plant parameters: leaflength, leafwidth, plant height and the number of leaves per plant. The results of these parameters for treatment 1 (T1) were higher of that of the other treatments.
10. Varietal Evaluation and Preference Analysis of Sixteen Released Rice Varieties in Bhojad, Chitwan, Nepal
Abstract— A study on varietal selection trials for different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was conducted in the field of Nepal Polytechnic Institute, Bhojad, Chitwan, Nepal with the objective of identifying suitable, high yielding promising rice varieties for the interest of the farming community. The experiment was carried out using 16 different treatments of released rice varieties in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with the identity on growth parameters like plant height, several tillers per meter square, panicle length, and yield parameters like effective tillers per meter square, filled grains per panicle, sterility percentage thousand-grain in weight, grain yield, straw yield, and Harvest Index were recorded. Data was entered and tabulated using MS-Excel while Analysis of variation and mean separation was done using R-Studio. The variation among varieties was observed for various traits. The variety Bahugunidhan-2 produced the highest grain yield (5.9 t/ha) followed by Ramdhan with the yield of (5.25 t/ha). The statistical analysis showed that the variety Sukha Dhandhan-3 was found earlier in 50% heading (84.67days), and maturity (125days). It was closely followed by Sabitri and Ramdhan which took 87.67 days to 50% heading and 139 and 138 days respectively for days to attain maturity. The information on variation for the traits among studied rice varieties will be helpful to plant breeders in constructing their breeding materials and implementing selection strategies in the future. Inappropriate varietal evaluation and selection in our country have led to the less development of variety with high yield potential. Improvement and participatory selection of promising rice varieties by studying genetic variability, character association between yield traits, and farmer preference analysis help in rice breeding for the selection of best rice varieties in the Chitwan district of Nepal.
11. Food and Feeding Habit of Heterotis Niloticus in Oguta Lake, IMO State, Nigeria
Abstract— A study on the food and feeding habits of Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) was carried for a period of six months in Oguta lake of Imo state between January to June 2018. The aim of the study was to investigate the food and feeding habits of Heterotis niloticus within the lake. A total of 180 specimens of Heterotis niloticus were sampled and examined. The result of the stomach content analysis showed that Heterotis niloticus consumed food of animal origin more than those from plant origin with respect to the size of the fish. There is a shift in the food and feeding habit of this fish from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding habit before maturity. The most dominant diet from the juvenile to Adult sizes of the fish were Copepods 61.0%, Cladeceran 58.0%, Ostracoda 48.0%, and Diatoms 46.7%, Frequency of Occurrence (FO) repectively. These finding showed that Heterotis niloticus consumed more zooplanktons and other animals based diets than phytoplankton’s and other plant based diets.
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Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science