Abstract-Triticale is used as a dual-purposes. In Bangladesh, dairy and poultry farms are being extended faster day by day. Therefore, the demand of fodder and feed increases swiftly. Moreover, triticale tolerates biotic and abiotic stressors better than wheat and durum. The trials were conducted in two consecutive years to search out a high yielding triticale line whereas two varieties were used as check viz. BARI Triticale 1 (E1) and BARI Triticale 2 (E2) and four lines (expressed as E3, E4, E5, and E6). In the research areas, temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were higher in 2018-19 than in 2019-20, but rainfall was lower. As a result, days to heading (DH), days to maturity (DM), fertile spikes per meter square (FSPMS), and grain yield (GY) were more in 2019-20 than in 2018-19. In 2018-19, thousand grain weight (TGW) correlated negatively with DH, DM, and FSPMS. In 2019-20, a positive association was established between FSPMS and GY. Furthermore, E5 and E6 lines had lower plant height (PH), but higher FSPMS and TGW than the control in both seasons. In addition, E5 and E6 yielded more GY than check and other lines. These findings suggested that E5 and E6 lines may be released as high yielding triticale variety (ies) to boost triticale production in Bangladesh.
2. Trend Analysis of Millet Production and Trade in Nepal in Order to Assess its Base while Celebrating International Year of Millet 2023
Abstract- The main objective of this study was to analyze the status of millet production and trade in Nepal in order to assess its base in context of celebration of international year of millet (IYM) 2023 by using trend analysis technique. The foundation of this study is based on the data of millet published by Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD), Singhadurbar, Kathmandu in various years. The growth rate in the area of millet in Nepal was found in ‘decreasing trend’ while the growth rate of both production and productivity of millet was found in ‘increasing trend’ in the period of 10 years between 2011/12 to 2020/21. Nepal was found involved in trade of just ‘single item’ of millet i.e millet seeds in the period from 2017/18 to 2021/22 which is a clear indication that trade of millet in the country lacks product diversification and value addition strategies. The growth rate in export of millet seeds was found in ‘decreasing trend’ in terms of quantity of export and ‘increasing trend’ in terms of monetary value of export in the same period. It might have been seen due to the fluctuation in the price of millet in the international market. The growth rate in import of millet seeds was found in ‘decreasing trend’ both in terms of volume and value of imports. It is the clear indication of lower preference of the farmers for growing millet over other crops in one hand and in another hand it clearly reflects the lower preference of consumers to consume millet over wheat and rice as it is perceived as the ‘crop of poor’ in society. The base of Nepal in the production and trade of millet was found ‘weak but with tremendous possibility to improve’ its performance in global market. In the scenario of declaration to celebrate 2023 as the International Year of Millet (IYM) by seventy fifth session of United Nations General Assembly, Nepal has opportunity to strengthen the trade of millet in Nepal through appropriate policy instruments for expansion of millet area, promotion in the use of improved varieties of millets, production based incentives, providing trainings and capacity building programs for farmers along with assured market mechanisms for achieving the actual motive of celebrating IYM and to bring the existing ‘underutilized’ status of millet into the limelight of ‘commercialization’.
3. Seaweed Marine Algae: Nutritional Values and Plant Growth Regulators for Sustainable Agriculture
Abstract- Marine plants weeds as “Seaweeds”. Seaweeds also known as macroalgae are primitive non-flowering plants without true root, stem and leaves. Seaweeds occur in the intertidal, shallow and deep waters of the sea upto 180 m depth and also in estuaries and backwaters. Seaweeds are classified three main groups; green, brown and red of macroalgae based on the presence of photosynthetic pigment. Macroalgae have been estimated at 9000 species and mainly categorized into three groups. In marine algae macronutrients include sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus the micronutrients include iodine, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, molybdenum, fluoride, manganese, boron, nickel and cobalt. Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, especially in B and B12, Omega-3 fatty acids (1-3%), protein contain dry matter rang 5-11% to 30-40%, fiber content, 32% to 50% of dry matter, and organic compounds which includes several common amino acids inter alia aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Marine algae source for the production of phytochemicals such as agar, carrageenan and algin. Seaweed liquid fertilizers are useful for achieving higher agricultural production, because the extract contains growth promoting hormones like; Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene, Betaine and Polyamines other than the trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics and micronutrients. Sea weeds and their extracts are integral to sustainable farming because of their multifarious utility in various fields of agriculture including nutrient and crop management, growth promotion and plant protection etc.
4. The Impacts of Mining on Livelihood and Development in Nyoenpaling Chiwog under Phuntshopelri Gewog, Samtse
Abstract- Mining plays a key role in facelifting the economic status of the people of its catchment area and nation particularly for developing countries, and Bhutan is no exception. In Bhutan mining provides employment and livelihood to a good number of people. Nyoenpaling Chiwog under Phuntshopelri Gewog, Samtse has been an important mining site for limestone, and dolomite since a few decades ago and will be hereafter too. However, the contribution of mining activity to livelihood and development is unclear today. So, there is a need for a thorough study on the impact of mining in Nyoenpaling Chiwog. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of mining in mining catchment areas. The data were collected from mining site localities through a mixed-method research approach. The study reveals that local people are not very positive about having mining sites in their area. There is an indication that local people are not benefiting as expected. The responses of residents suggest that adequate infrastructure development like a paved transport network, safe drinking water, bridge, and river embankment could ease their living in the area. Therefore, the study aims to explore the possibility of addressing these issues by concerned stakeholders. Addressing these issues can have a greater positive impact on the livelihood of people living here.
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Engineering Journal IJOER
International Journal of Engineering Research and Science